Russian Foundation for Fundamental Investigations
Grant numbers 0-012-00065: Cultural Diffusion of the Circassians of Russia and Turkey: Art History and Socio-Cultural Anslysis.
Similarities аnd Differences in Oeuvre of Circassian Artists of Adygea and Circassians of Turkey
The study aims to identify and analyze the general and special characteristics of the works of the Circassian artists of Adygea and their colleagues from the Adyghe diaspora in Turkey. The sources were works of fine art, the results of research by domestic and Turkish art historians, critics, sociologists, and historians. The methodology is based on a combination of comparative techniques used in art history to analyze artistic objects and systems (synchronic and diachronic methods, micro- and macro-comparison). The social function of masters of painting living in different sociocultural conditions is studied, the goals of their work are revealed, priority genres and techniques are analyzed. The importance of the Adyghe artists who lived and live in the North Caucasus, as representatives of the artistic elite of the ethnic group, is emphasized; their work is aimed at preserving mythopoetic images and ethnic identity. Other tendencies are revealed in the creative experience of the Circassian artists of Turkey, who seek not only and not so much to reveal the culture of their people, but to turn to universal values, trying to integrate into the system of European and world art. The author identifies two periods in the development of the fine arts of Circassian artists in Russia and Turkey: before the collapse of the USSR and after it. The characteristic features of the oeuvre of representatives of both groups of artists during the periods identified are revealed. The activity of contemporary artists-receptivists of Adyghe origin (R. Tsrimov and A. Guchapshev and others) is especially highlighted. The basic artistic principles of receptivism are given, and, in a comparative aspect, the degree of popularity of this trend in Kabardino-Balkaria and Adygea is revealed. It is concluded that the differences between the Adyghe artists of Russia and Turkey are manifested in several aspects: at the moment of the formation of the Adyghe art communities in Turkey and in Russia; in the peculiarities of the formed and maintained artistic tradition; in unequal conditions of obtaining professional education by masters of the Caucasus and Turkey; in the socioeconomic circumstances that determined the creative activity and indirectly influenced the value orientations of artists. The points of creative intersection lie in the plane of ethnic values, signs and symbols, equally deciphered by the Circassians of the North Caucasus and the diaspora, as well as in assessments of the historical past, especially the Caucasian war, in a particularly revered attitude towards the nature and beauty of the Caucasus.