Personality in the World of Culture of Origin and Universal Values
The aim of the article is to identify and comprehensively describe the key realities and concepts of the cultural and thematic microfield “Uzbek Domestic Life”. The methodology is based on a systematic generalization and comparison of the semantics of ethnocultural realities expressed through nonequivalent lexical units. The research materials were ethnographic data on the culture of the Uzbek and Bashkir peoples, studies of culturologists and linguists. Domestic life is interpreted as a historically formed, evolving system of spiritual education that defines the characteristics of the behavior of a person of culture and their attitude to basic life values. The authors proceed from the fact that a reference to universal values and an understanding of the significance of the heritage of the past (not only of one’s own people, but also the peoples of other countries) create mutual understanding between representatives of different ethnic groups and promote intercultural communication. At the same time, centuries-old linguistic and cultural contacts between representatives of different ethnic groups living in the same territory are usually reflected in the language fund. The key to uncovering the value layer of the most capacious ethnocultural realities is the nonequivalent and incompletely equivalent vocabulary of related languages. To achieve the aim of the research, the lexical units of the Uzbek and Bashkir languages were analyzed. It is shown how the studied lexical layer affects the understanding of fundamental life concepts: “family hearth”, “house”, and associated traditional moral standards. An array of the most important ethnocultural realities has been singled out, which immanently reflects the social structure, the peculiarities of Uzbek life, which determine the mentality, mores, customs, habits, and tastes of the people. This array consists of: mahallah (a union of people connected by the invisible bonds of good neighborliness and the community of the territory in which they live); hashar (joint activity of people); sumalak (a national dish of sprouted wheat grains); tumor (an amulet attributed to the ability to protect the owner from evil); ulak (“goat pulling”, an ancient folk game, revived to the level of international competition). The authors conclude that languages as a reflection of national experience provide the key to understanding the characteristics of ethnic identity. At the same time, in linguistic and cultural terms, the full integration of every language and every nation into world culture is a link that strengthens mutual understanding between representatives of different ethnic groups.