On the Worldview of Alexander Pushkin
The article deals with the features of the worldview of Alexander Pushkin, a brilliant poet and an original thinker, who left a deep trace in Russian culture and national consciousness. This issue has been repeatedly described in the works of different researchers who, based on their own political, ethical and religious ideas, often unilaterally assessed Pushkin’s socio-political, aesthetic and religious views. Back in the 19th century, Pushkin was presented as a “humble Christian” (F.M. Dostoevsky), on the one hand, and as a “pagan, rebellious, sensual and heroic” Russian genius (K.N. Leontiev), on the other. The assessments of Pushkin’s worldview in the Soviet and post-Soviet periods differ significantly.
In this regard, the article aims to consider Pushkin’s worldview in the context of his whole life and career, attracting not only his works of art, but also his correspondence with friends and acquaintances, as well as memories of contemporaries. At the same time, the study takes into account not only the socio-political, cultural and ideological situation in which Pushkin lived and worked, but also his spiritual evolution, for he was rather impulsive in nature, was constantly looking for the meaning of life, reliable points of support in the ever-changing world. As many of his peers, young Pushkin went through the “mental diseases” of his era, which, in addition to revolutionary romance expressed in the condemnation of autocratic despotism and moral condemnation of serfdom, included passion for the Masonic ideas, atheistic and even militant atheistic attitudes. But in the period of maturity, which came after the defeat of the Decembrist uprising in 1825, the foundation of Pushkin’s political views becomes a national-patriotic mentality designed as a public service consciousness. The conservatism of his political worldview manifests itself as a dislike for radical and violent methods of political struggle. In his political convictions, Pushkin becomes a monarchist and only demands restrictions on the sovereign’s power by law so that the monarchy does not turn into despotism. The analysis shows that Pushkin was not ready to cram his life in the Procrustean bed of some philosophical theory, but attempted to experience all the states of the human spirit: he craves life and all its joys then renounces it up to austerity; he is open to the outside world then closed and concentrated on himself; he appears to be an atheist and even a blasphemer then a genuinely religious person who sees the manifestation of the divine gift in his works. However, despite Pushkin’s ability to change his image depending on the circumstances and aspirations, there is a sustainable trend in the development of his worldview. His personal formation goes from youthful rebellion and liberty to liberal conservatism based on national traditions and Russian culture, on the one hand, and requiring personal liberty as a guarantee of creative activity, on the other.